The project manager controls the use of the resources available to the project, ensuring its implementation in accordance with the schedule and achieve their goals.When the information obtained through the informative system functioning well indicate the emergence of a problem or potential deviations from the plan, the project manager decides to take appropriate corrective action. In this way the “control” or influence the outcome of the project.
Financing of the project
Each project must have a budget. The budget is carefully calculated assessment of the value or cost of the project and always made up of expenditure – the cost of the project and influence – the raw materials used in the project in order to cover costs. The budgets must be balanced. They can not be negative (where the money would come?). There may also be positive (projects, we are talking about are non-profit projects).
Gather the necessary funds to carry out the project is often difficult. Unfortunately there is no way that would allow the meeting in a few days the necessary money, but it remains a key issue in the implementation of the project. Many were already projects that could not be met due to lack of funds.
Fundraising can not be seen only as something marginal to the project. It requires a highly professional approach. The project will encounter competition and, therefore, must be effective, compelling and innovative, and must also support organizations to offer something in return.
Before you start fundraising check:
• do you know through the design and organization;
• Do you believe in the project and you are ready to go on with it;
• the extent to which you are prepared – authorized to process certain aspects of the project;
• if you have a list takes into account everything that is needed to complete the project (including a list of resources that were made available by the organization);
• if you have the support and consent of the other partners in the project, and members of your organization, seeking individual donations or applying to certain foundations sometimes requires a decision regarding the policy of the organization.When you turn to the company, be sure that you become a participant in the market, and that your “product” to be competitive. “Sell” the image (community action, social change, etc..). However, it seems that companies are increasingly interested in the projects and open to participate in its funding. And this is mainly due to the binding of the advertising (project financing, the company creates a positive image of the “generous” companies and is combined with the image of the project). A recent survey shows that support for the projects comes mainly from the financial, energy, electronics (including new technologies), tobacco and alcohol.
What do you expect the sponsors?
• Ensure that the project is successfully completed;
• judicious management of the funds and use them for their intended purpose specified in the description of the project;
• Good advertising for the project and mentioning their names at all events;
• Project that is clear and well arranged;
• Solid accounting;
• “Professional” sound and well-informed team;
• Success or views on development;
• Support from the community, of which you will carry out the project.
In the selection of financing strategies to keep in mind that there are several sources you can use. These are: own funds, advances and reimbursement payments, the company’s revenue and bank loans or loan funds.
The basis for the smooth implementation of the project, without which the fund is under a big question mark is their own funds. In addition to the company’s capital company can try to acquire an investor, such as a business angel, or an experienced entrepreneur who interested in our idea and convinced of the market potential will be able to – usually in exchange for shares in the company.
Another financing option is available for payment at the beginning of the project. To be able to get them to be, after the signing of the grant agreement, and before the start of the project, submit a request for payment in advance.
After exhausting the advance project finance from its own resources, but within 30 days after each of the steps in applying for a refund in the form of refunds, which can be a source of funding for the next stage. Element minimizes concerns about liquidity is taking some steps in the planning stage of the project.
The company’s revenue
Moreover – prepared at the stage of application documentation – the project business model defines the different revenues for the year, or, to put it simply, it’s what our company will make money both on the stage of the project and after its completion.
Loans and loan funds
An additional source of funding for the projects can be a bank loan or a loan fund. Obtaining external funding, however, is dependent on the possession of credit and security possible. If it is a loan to finance current operations without indicating to, the funds are treated as the beneficiary’s own funds. However, credit for the financing of specific projects, usually associated with making the assignment of receivables financing agreement for the lending bank.During the implementation of the budget, the project manager should:
• Analyse the exact agreement, rules and procedures for the competition to make sure what is eligible, what is the contribution of labor and payment terms (if the project is accounted for in installments);
• Analyse the payment terms and cash flow of the project. If your organization does not have enough resources, you can get a bank loan for example;
• Keep a record of your expenses related to the project, preferably in a spreadsheet. Then easily monitor the expenditures and react when there are unexpected costs;
• Do not leave unspent funds at the end of the project. Changes in the allocation of funds should be made on the fly, then we have time for new activities or those that improve the quality of the project;
• The current document all expenses. All invoices should be described.
Depending on the scale of the project budget general can be difficult to start the preparation. Such is the case of medium-term projects, it is often modified budgets are prepared. Even if there are difficulties, the budget continues to be important, because it still gives you an idea about the realities and dimensions of the project. No budget makes it impossible to monitor the project and makes it impossible to answer the question of whether the project is feasible. If you do not know how much the project will cost you, do not know how much you need.
In the sphere of cost management are:
• Planning, allocation and disbursement of resources (people, equipment, money, materials) necessary for the performance of the project;
• Estimating the costs needed to complete the project
• Supervise cost control implementation and anticipating future costs of the project.
How to create a budget: WBS – the basis for the creation of the budget for long-term projects to estimate the costs of taking into account the time factor (exchange rate fluctuations, market risk …), historical information from other projects is a good basis for estimating costs, the availability of resources influences the cost of the project, costs can be determined after the creation of the Risk Management Plan – because this in turn has its own budget.
Methods for determining the cost
• Comparative Estimates (Top-Down) – on the basis of other projects and expertise define the cost of the project,
• Estimating the bottom (Bottom-Up) – the contractor estimated value of the work, data collection and aggregation to the next level WBS,
• Parametric Estimating – mathematical models and algorithms for predicting the existing costs (eg the cost of writing a line of code, the average construction cost of 1 square meter apartments).
It should be noted that the resources needed for the project is not always and not in any quantity can be obtained and used. For this reason, the course (of action) of the project must take into account existing constraints. First of all, take into account the financial constraints – to acquire and use all the necessary human resources, material and non-material financial resources are needed, which in each company are available in limited quantity and must be shared between the project and other activities.
Human Resource Management
Human resource management consists primarily of:
• organizational planning – a definition and separation of duties, responsibilities and reporting lines for individuals and groups of people,
• recruiting staff – this is required to ensure people assigned to work on the project, the development team – this is an opportunity to expand individual and collective contribution to the project through the development of teamwork skills,
• optimal use of the knowledge and experience of the participants
Managing people (often called “human resource management”) in project management is primarily the management team directing the project. In addition, the management of people to a large extent the ability to get the very best, and extraction of people what they most value for the benefit of others (and of course for themselves).
Teams are groups of people who work together to achieve certain goals. The project teams are usually a number of members of a number of different technical departments of knowledge, expectations and skills. Building a project team is often done both formally associated with the use of project initiation meetings, workshops and seminars for project managers and project team members, as well as informally by creating a spirit of teamwork, individual and team motivation, potkania integration and support strategies.
The project teams are the effects of group dynamics that may help or hinder the running of the project. In most cases, the process of the development team goes through a similar sequence of phases (ie, creating, agitation, standardization, action), regardless of the team.
Leadership is the act of creating a social system in which both the leader and the person subject to complete his task or solving a problem with minimal financial loss, temporal, emotional and social subtracting, or at least an attempt. It also includes the impact on the attitude and behavior of individuals or groups aimed at achieving certain goals. This is done by planning, organizing, motivating, controlling and directing the team. Leadership is causing others to go the same way.
Leadership techniques differ due to the participation of workers in decision-making and support of the Board. Different management styles shape the relationship between the leader and the group. The basic elements of leadership are motivation, command, incentives and sanctions (power).
Barry Boehm formulated the following principles of personnel management:
• The principle of top talent
Use a smaller number of better people. It is said that good people are many times (up to twenty times) more effective than the less qualified people – and their salaries are never twenty times greater.
• The principle of the suitability of tasks
People should be given tasks that are consistent with their skills, abilities and motivations. It should be noted that not only the skills but perhaps above all, the possibility to decide on the suitability of persons to perform the task.
• The principle of career progression
People work better if they have the prospect of development. Do not be so to the person who actually does the work of management, to offer technical activities. Such a person will treat the job as a necessity, of course, is not conducive to fully engage in the work.
• The principle of team balance
The principle of the highest principle of complementary talents. Each team must be creative people and people who perform routine tasks, supportive.