In any organization, only two aspects of work exist—on-going operations and projects. Projects are defined as unique, temporary endeavors with a specific beginning and end.
Operations constitute an organization’s on-going, repetitive activities, such as accounting or production.
Since all work and/or efforts performed within an organization are characterized as either operations or projects, all of the costs of an organization must be distributed to either operations or projects.
Projects are initiated by organizations for a variety of reasons, such as to meet a business need, attain a strategic objective or meet a market demand. The only way organizations can accomplish any of these goals is by expending resources of the organization over time, for a cost.
Project Management System (PMS) is a flexible and powerful solution to manage projects, targeted at enterprises and organizations oriented design – from the creation of the project after project planning, including resources and time, their execution and settlement, including task, time and money.
They are the perfect solution for organizations that need close coordination and standardization projects and activities of project managers and project team members, centralized management and advanced reports on planning, monitoring and accounting projects and dedicated resources to implement them.
Benefits implementation of Project Management:
• improve the planning, execution and settlement effects projects, where each project activity can be oriented towards a specific objective;
• access to the status of projects, both in terms of utilization of resources, time and money – and provides insight into the variety of tasks in an enterprise, allowing for better analysis and better decision-making;
• streamlines workflow management (planning, execution and settlement), leading to lower costs, improve quality and shorten the duration of the project;
• facilitates the effective assignment of people, time and resources to the project;
• improves information sharing and coordination, making it easier for team members to participate in projects to develop progress reports and work together on the implementation of projects.
Overall, the project management system can be described as a series of interlocking and interacting subsystems, which include control, planning, information, methodology, culture, organization and human resources. These subsystems play an important role in the management of each project and each of them can decide the success or failure of the project.
Specific steps in the project management situation model are as follows:
• Announcement of the project idea,
• Initiation of action
• Scheduling tasks broken down by individual team members,
• Execution of tasks
• Monitoring and verification before the set of assumptions,
• Planning and execution of tasks not yet completed,
• Control of the final project.
What is the organization of execution of the project?
• Raising funds for the project,
Gather the necessary funds to carry out the project is often difficult. Unfortunately there is no way that would allow the meeting in a few days the necessary money, but it remains a key issue in the implementation of the project. Many were already projects that could not be met due to lack of funds.
• Planning the allocation of tasks to the scope of the project construction,
Many people find it difficult to convince the planning. They believe that planning is a waste of time, so that will bring life and what it has to bring. However, the lack of planning, reducing prospects for the “here and now” is, unfortunately, quite a bumpy road to success. Those who do not plan to, collide with difficulties, for which they are not prepared, which drastically reduces their chances of effective action.
• Searching for suppliers and sub-contractors of the project,
Finding a proper and good equipment is also necessary. Who will provide the equipment that we need? Of course you must find (trusted – offering products of high quality) provider. But that’s not all equipment must also be aware of employees with the right skills.
• Outsourcing and Services,
• Developing project performance incentive schemes,
Motivation is a good way to increase productivity. If you motivate the employees a bonus or promotion employee option will naturally pay you more for your jobs. The result will be better, more made the final product of the project.
• Developing a system ensures the quality of the project,
• Approval by the execution of the project management organization.
One of the more general and universal design division, the division in which we distinguish basic steps: First Defining the Project, Second Planning, 3rd Implementation, 4th Control Project, 5th Finishing project.
Step 1 Define the project
At the beginning of the project is certainly realize a specific need – a new product. This need is an incentive to develop the concept of the meeting, and the final selection of the satisfaction of needs, and so the choice of the project (project definition) becomes the basis for all other stages. Selection of the project is dependent on a variety of factors, both external – for example, queries related to bids, tenders, orders external and internal, company-related opportunities, resources, skills, staff and board of directors.
Defining the project can be divided into phases:
• identify the needs,
• data collection,
• selection of tools that will meet the need,
• setting strategic objectives,
• determine the level of risk and the identification,
• Resource assessment and determination of potential team
Phase 2 of the project selection
Project selection makes it possible to draw up an action plan and organize the execution of the project. Frequently at the beginning of pre-prepared plan that takes into account all the requirements of the project and the benefits it will bring us. Then prepares a detailed plan that defines milestones, work breakdown structure and resource requirements during the project.
The project plan is used to:
• guide the implementation of the work on the project,
• document the planning assumptions,
• documentation of planning decisions on the selected alternatives
• Facilitate communication between project stakeholders,
• define the content, scope and duration of project evaluations by the Board and specify the requirements for the measurement and evaluation of the progress of work on the project and the results achieved.
Selection of the project can be divided into podetapy:
• Detailed analysis of the data,
• Define the scope: for the end products, the quality standards, of resources, of action
• Develop an overall action plan,
• Plan and budget expenditure
• Identify the structure of work,
• Establishment of a project team,
• Identify communication procedures and quality
• Risk assessment,
• Identify conditions of the project,
• Approval or rejection of the project.
Stage 3 project
The implementation phase allows you to perform pre-planned activities. Of course, specific methods of its implementation depends on the specifics of the project. During the implementation there is a need for continuous monitoring and coordination of the work.
Realization of the project can be divided into sub-tasks:
• Acquisition of resources
• Motivate team
• Update plans
• Implementation of the planned work.
Step 4 Control Project
Phase control actually runs for the duration of the project, by monitoring its progress, and we verify what we plan and manage potential variations with the establishment of the acceptable range of variation (management by exception).
Control processes include:
• complete control – coordinating changes in the cross-section of the entire project,
• changes in the scope of control – controlling changes to the project scope,
• Schedule control – controlling changes in the schedule of implementation of the operations or activities of the project,
• Cost control – controlling changes to the project budget and its implementation,
• Quality control – monitoring specific project results to determine the extent to which they comply with quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate possible causes and diffusion of the results – the collection and transmission of information on the progress and results achieved.
Control of the project can be divided into sub-tasks:
• Managing, monitoring, prediction, control: of scope, quality, of time, a cost
• Risk management,
• Review the scope of the project,
• Verification of the project,
• Technical and Financial Audit.
Step 5 Completion of the project
The last phase, the completion of the project is to determine whether the objectives have been achieved? If so, to what extent, if not why not? whether the final product meets the requirements of the customer, requires preparation of the final reports, and in many cases also to create a system service (maintenance) of the product from the user.
• Is the project’s results were in line with customer expectations?
• Are the results were consistent with the expectations of the project manager?
• Does the project team performed different tasks according to plan?
• How does the information gathered may be useful in the implementation of new projects?
• Have proven project management methodology and the design team followed the same methodology?
• What lessons can be learned from the project?
Number and type of stages, and their names are determined by the nature of the project and the project management organization. Number of phases of the project involving the development of specialized software will be different from the number of phases of a construction project, or develop a new drug.
Of course, depending on individual needs, the company can make its own steps and use a different breakdown of the projects carried out for a specific phase. For example, a company in the information technology can apply this division:
– Identification of needs,
– The definition of requirements,
– The design of the system,
Completion of the project can be divided into podetapy:
• The finalization of products,
• Inspection and formal acceptance,
• Preparation of final accounts,
• Transfer of responsibility for items collection,
• Evaluation of the project,
• Creation of final documents,
• Archiving documents
• The release and redirect resources
• Deployment of team members to other activities,
• Sound project success.
Projects and project management processes vary from industry to industry; however, these are more traditional elements of a project. The overarching goal is typically to offer a product, change a process or to solve a problem in order to benefit the organization.
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